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‘Iqaamat e Deen’ (establishment of Deen) is the comprehensive title of the obligations of Muslims. The following verses are the source of this term:

  “It is for Allah to give judgment in whatever you may differ. The same Allah is my Lord: in Him did I put my trust, and to Him I turn. He is the Creator of the heavens and the earth, who made for you, pairs from your own kind and pairs also of the cattle (from their own kind) so as to multiply you. There is nothing like Him in the universe: He hears everything and sees everything. To Him belong the keys of the treasures of the heavens and the earth: He gives abundantly to whomsoever He wills and sparingly to whomsoever He wills: He has knowledge of everything. He has appointed for you the same Way of life which He had ordained for Noah and which (0 Muhammad) We have now revealed to you; and which We had already enjoined on Abraham and Moses and Jesus, stressing: "Establish this Way and be not divided in it.  The same thing to which you (O Muhammad) are calling the mushriks has set them ill at ease. Allah chooses for Himself whomever He wills, and He guides to His Way only him who turns to Him (in penitence). (42: 10, 13)

 

In these verses the light is put on the most significant facts, among them few are as follow:

(A)     The instruction to establish the Deen is not only given to Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) but it was given to the Messengers before him. Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus are the prominent among them.

(B)     It is Allah Who will give judgment on the controversies pertaining to any matter among human being. So the Deen which He has revealed is not only consists on the instructions which are merely not related with a single aspect of human life but it is related with the entire affairs of the life. Because controversies in each and every state of affairs of human were being happened among them and also they existed today itself.

(C)      The instruction of establishment of Deen displeases the mushriks (the same thing has been described in Surah Saf also). The base for this displeasure is that instead of following Allah’s way the mushrikeen want to follow the wrong traditions of their ancestors.

(D)    Those who are earnest to get guidance and turn to Allah can only get direction to establish the Deen. 

 

The meaning of Iqaamat e Deen

Qur’an says, ‘It is for Allah to give judgment in whatever you may differ.’ In this matter it could not leave any doubt that,the Deen is related with the entire life. Hence the meaning of the establishment of Deen is that the entire life and its all activities should have to be managed according to the Divine Guidance’. The constitution of Jamaat e Islami Hind, implies the same interpretation of the term “Iqaamat e Deen”, the words of the Jamaat’s constitution are:

The word “ Deen” in the term “ Iqaamat-e-Deen” means that true Deen which Allah, the Lord of the worlds, had been sending through all His prophets in different ages and different lands and which He revealed in its final and perfect form for the guidance of all men, through His Last Prophet, Hazrat Muhammad (Allah’s blessings and peace be on him!), and which is now in the world the only authentic, pristine Deen and the only one which is acceptable to Allah, the name of which is Islam.

 

This Deen encompasses the exterior and the interior of man as well as all individual and collective aspects of his life. There is not even a single aspect of human life ranging from beliefs, rituals and morals to economic, social and political aspects which may be beyond its pale.

Just as this Deen ensures Divine pleasure and success in the Hereafter, it is also the best system of life for the proper solution of all worldly problems, and righteous and progressive reconstruction of individual and social life is possible only through its establishment.

 

Iqaamat of this Deen means that it, in its entirety and without exercising any discrimination or division, should be sincerely followed and followed single-mindedly. It should be so enforced and given effect to in all aspects of human life, individual as well as corporate, that the development of the individual, the reconstruction of society and the formation of State should all conform to this very Deen.

       The above mentioned comprehensive interpretation explains the variety of necessities of the work of Iqaamat e Deen. Among these necessities which are related with the development of the individual, the reconstruction of society and the formation of State are prominent one. No doubt that the implementation of the Devine Guidance on each and every aspect of human being can be then and then only possible when a kind of State come to existence which aims to follow the Allah’s commands with sincerity of heart and to promulgate them. Therefore the formation of Islamic State is indispensable part of Iqaamat e Deen.

 

In the absence of Islamic State

‘What would Muslims do in the absence of an Islamic State.’ In this matter Surah Shura guides us. Surah Shura is Mekkan Surah. According to Maulana Syed Abul A’ala Mudoodi its period of revelation is very close to that of the period of Surah Ha – Mim As Sajda and Surah Ha- Mim As Sajda was revealed after Hazrat Hamza’s acceptance of Islam and before Umar’s acceptance of Islam. In Surah Shura the collective life of Muslims is presented which shows that in the absence of Islamic State Muslims should have to lead a well organized life and the standard of their discipline should have to be like a State:

“Whatever you have been given, is merely a provision for the transitory life of this world, and that which is with allah is better as well as more lasting. That is for those who have believed and put their trust in their Lord, who refrain from gross sins and indecencies, who when they are angry, forgive, who obey their Lord, establish he Salat, and conduct their affairs by mutual consultation, who spend out of what We have given them as sustenance; who when they are oppressed, help defend themselves. The recompense of evil is like a evil, then whoever pardons and seeks reconcilement, his reward is with Allah. Allah does not like the wrongdoers. And those who avenge themselves after they have been wronged, cannot be held blameworthy, for blameworthy indeed are those who oppress others and commit excesses in the land without any right. For such people there is a painful torment. However the one who practices patience and is forgiving, those indeed are works of great courage and resolution.” (42:36 – 43)

 

In the above mentioned verses some points are described:

(A)     The relation of Muslim society with Allah

(B)      Required moral Characteristics.

(C)      Consultation  

(D)      Fight against injustice

 

 In the context of these aspects the picture of such a society appears before us which is well disciplined and keeps its permanent collective status. In respect to its thoughts and ideologies it is different from the surrounding societies and distinguished with its own collective nature and characteristics. Such an organized society keeps the ability to assume the position of a State quiet in a natural style when the circumstances favor it. In contrast to this, a society which is lacking in conscious and collectivism is just like a throng and it could not reach to the place of power and rule though the circumstances favours it a lot. Today this picture of Makkan life calls to ponder, the Muslims of those regions where they are living under the non Islamic State.

    

Muslim Society and its relation with Allah

The basic characteristic of the Muslim society is that its people maintain the live and deep contact with Allah. Imaan is the foundation of this contact and the first ever phenomena of the Imaan is to say Labbaik (I’m present) on the call of Allah.  This quality of the believers is stated in the Qur’an as:

    “Our Lord! Indeed we heard a crier calling to the faith saying: "Believe in your Lord"; so we did believe. Our Lord, forgive us our sins, and wipe out our evil deeds and make us die with the truly pious. 'Our Lord, fulfil what You promised to us through Your Messengers, and disgrace us not on the Day of Resurrection; indeed You never go back on Your promise.” (3:194, 94).

 

Trust on Allah is another phenomenon of Imaan. The children of Israel were also commanded the same trust:

    “We gave Moses the Book, and made it a source of guidance for the Children of Israel, commanding: 'Take no other guardian beside Me.” (17:2)

 

    The meaning of Tawakkal (Trust upon Allah) is to keep away from the illegal things while adopting a course of actions and adopt only which are legitimate course of actions, and also trust on Allah not on the course of actions.

 

    To spend in the way of Allah is another feature of Imaan, it is there in Surah Baqra:

    “In contrast to them, the charity of those, who expend their wealth sincerely with the sole desire of pleasing Allah, may be likened to a garden on a plateau. If heavy rain falls, it yields its produce twofold: and even if there is no heavy rain but only a light shower, that too, is sufficient for it: whatever you do is in the sight of Allah.” (2:265)

 

 “It is no virtue. That you turn your faces towards the east or the west, but virtue is that one should sincerely believe in Allah and the Last Day and the Angels and the Book and the Prophets and, out of His love, spend of one's choice wealth for relatives and orphans, for the needy and the wayfarer, for beggars and for the ransom of slaves, and establish the Salat and pay the Zakat. And the virtuous are those who keep their pledges when they make them and show fortitude in hardships and adversity and in the struggle between the Truth and falsehood; such are the truthful people and such are the pious.” (2:177)

 

The most prominent phenomenon of Imaan is to establish Salat. The society which could not manage to establish Salat, cannot be called the Islamic Society and in the society where only 10 percent people offer Namaz and remaining 90 percent unmindful about it, that society is surely not a cognizant Islamic society. Therefore the children of Israel were commanded to establish Namaz as to turn their downfall in to the rise and for creating a life among them:

    “Moses said: 'My people! If you believe in Allah and are truly Muslims*81 then place your reliance on Him alone.' They replied: we place our reliance on Allah. Our Lord! Do not make us a trial for the oppressors, and deliver us, through Your mercy, from the unbelievers.'  And We directed Moses and his brother: 'Prepare a few houses for your people in Egypt, and make your houses a direction for men to pray, and establish Prayer, and give glad tidings to the men of faith.” (10:84, 87)

 

The same instruction of establishing the Namaz was given to Prophet Mohammad (PBUH):

 “(O Prophet, recite this Book which has been revealed to you, and establish the Salat. Surely the Salat restrains from indecent and evil acts, and the remembrance of Allah is a thing even greater   than this; Allah knows whatever you do.” (29:45)

 

Desired Moral Qualities

The prerequisite result of the conscious and the deep contact with Allah is that the high moral characteristics should be developed in the Muslim society. Escaping from the major sins is the prominent characteristic of the believers. The major sins were described in Surah al Furquan:

   “Who do not invoke any god but Allah nor kill a soul, which Allah has forbidden, unjustly, nor commit adultery. He who does this shall be punished for his sin, and his torment shall be doubled on the Day of Resurrection, and he shall abide in a state of ignominy, except the one who may have repented (after those sins) and have believed and done righteous works, for then Allah will change his evil deeds into good deeds, and He is very Forgiving and Merciful. In fact, the one who repents and does righteous deeds, returns to Allah as one rightly should.* (And the servants of the Merciful are those:) who do not bear witness to falsehood and who; if they have ever to pass by what is vain, pass by like dignified people.”  (25:68 -72)

 

The prominent moral degradations have been mentioned in Surah Aeraf as:

 “(O Muhammad!) We know indeed that the things they say grieve you, though in truth it is not you whom they give the lie to, but it is the signs of Allah that these wrong-doers reject.” (6:33)

 

The one more characteristics of the believers is that whenever they become angry they suppress their anger and forgive their fellow being. Their society is not like such where the people and the group were in a fit to take revenge; instead of it a common tradition of forgiveness is prevailed in it. The people of this society control their sentiments and were not out of control. Their actions were being performed after a sincere consideration. It is not that they have no beating hearts or they have no emotions but they keep the emotions under the control of wisdom and to wisdom under the control of Shari’ah. If they scold it is just for the sake of Allah, hence this expression is under the control of the Devine law, and Divine law is not ignorant.

 

State of Counsel (Shura’yiat)

 

The description of the characteristics of council in context to the Muslim society meant that this society is a well organized society in which the system of hearing and submission is prevailed. The methodology to decide the collective state of affairs shown in this society was that of Privy Council. The spirit of Privy Council and the practical implementation of this system make realistically aware of the Islamic State to the Muslim society and train the individuals of the society. Maulana Shabbir Ahmed Usmani writes in his tafseer:

    “Allah likes the work which is performed by consultation whether it is a work of Deen or the worldly affairs. Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) always used to counsel with his companions in the affairs of the war. And the companions counsel with each other. In the matters of war and regarding the other issues and orders, even so, the Orthodox Caliphate was established on the base of consultation.”

 

It is the spirit of the counsel that all the people of the society should directly or indirectly participate in the process of counsel. In spite of some blunders by few companions, Allah commanded Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) to consult with them as usual:

    “It was thanks to Allah's mercy that you were gentle to them. Had you been rough, hard-hearted, they would surely have scattered away from you. So pardon them, and pray for their forgiveness, and take counsel from them in matters of importance. And when you are resolved on a course of action place your trust in Allah; surely Allah loves those who put their trust (in Him). (3:159)

 

Interpreting this verse Maulana Shabbir Ahmed Usmani writes:

(Allah told Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) that He has made him gentle and kind. Prophet (PBUH) ignoring their flaws rectifies them. Therefore forgive this flaw (which was committed by some companions in the Ohad war) and although Allah has forgiven them, however for further consolation and comfort solicit pardon for them from Us, so as to these heartbroken people getting your (Prophet’s) happiness and bliss feel absolute comfort and release, and just forgiving is not enough, but in future counsel with them as usual in the state of affairs.”

 

The methods which were adopted for the implementation of the principles of counsel in the history of Muslim Ummah, the present day Muslims can be benefited with them and also with the other experiments of the world. Anyway, it is desirable that in the absence of Islamic State Muslim society should lead an organized life and organization of this collective life should be formed on the basis of consultation.

 

Fight against oppression and injustice  

The one of the major qualities of believers is that when they were oppressed they fight against it. The Arabic word “Baghi” is used for oppressive attitude. This is among the dissolute qualities from which Allah has forbidden:

   “Surely Allah enjoins justice, kindness and the doing of good, to kith and kin, and forbids all that is shameful, evil and oppressive. He exhorts you so that you may be mindful.” (16:90)   

Describing the meaning of “baghi” Maulana Shabbir Ahmed Usmani writes that:

(Baghi means) to cross the boundaries by rebelling, be firm on inflicting cruelties  and ready to kill; and for killing, illegitimately oppress others, confiscating their wealth or to disgrace them.”

 

It appears from the context of the text that, in Surah Shura “Baghi” stands for oppressive attitude which is being done as a whole against the Muslim society.  If the entire Muslim society is being oppressed then the responsibility of Muslims which is described that they should take arms against the oppression.  Subsequently in the next verse it is desired that the people that should forgive cruelties against (on their own individual) them, but it is conditional that they expect reformation as an outcome of their forgiving attitude. The forgiving attitude would enable them deserve of the divine reward .Anyway forgiveness is not made mandatory for the individuals. They were permitted that they can take revenge on account of oppression but cannot cross the boundaries while taking revenge.

 

To defend and to fight against the oppression is the right of an individual and all the systems of law of the world have been accepted this right. Qur’an also tells that the society of the believers have also the right for their own defense but what is his more responsibility is that to fight against the oppression inflicted to his entire society. If a society failed to fight against such cruelties then it will be considered as insensible society, it could not be a conscious and alive society. However fighting against the cruelties and in defending themselves the Muslim society will be abided by the Islamic law and away from violating it.  

 

 

 

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