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The roots of the creation of the Islamic minorities in the west go back to the era of the Ommayyed dynasty in Andalusia which we witnessed the transmission of Islam to the Europe from the south west of that continent and afterwards the Muslims reached to the south of France and then to the east of Europe that it is coincident with the time that the ottomans reached to Vienna, the capital city of the then empire of Austria. That it caused a great number of the inhabitants of Balkan region were converted to Islam.
Those new converted Muslims afterwards created the nucleus of the Muslim minorities who for the time being are residing in the east of European continent which it is an indication of the historical bonds of the Islamic culture with the west.
Through the increasing  numbers of the Muslim minorities as well as the increase of their activities in the cultural areas, in recent years in the Islamic communities in the west have had continuous advancement.

The statistics in this area show that at least seven million Muslims live in the united states of America and during the recent decades a number of the Islamic cultural organizations and centers have been emerged in that country which they play a great role in the arena of U.S. A.
About 35 million Muslims live in the European Union (EU) which it is expected by 2020 the Muslims constitute almost 10 percent of the total population of European continent.
The statistics show that there exist 7006 Islamic unions, association and mosque in the European Union (EU) which more than 16 million Muslims benefit from their 7254182_Begum_194.jpgservices.

Ideological Challenges

Life for Muslims living in the West is complex, and matters are made worse by ongoing “Islamaphobia,” an attitude which ostracizes the Muslim populace as second class citizens. Hostility towards Muslims was highlighted by the Runnymede Trust’s 1997 report: Islamaphobia: a Challenge for Us All, and also confirmed by the 2006 report from the EUMC (European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia) on Muslims in the European Union. Discrimination and Islamophobia. These document increasing incidences of attacks on Muslims, but also, worryingly, the “deepening receptivity of society to such attacks” (Runnymede 2006, 54). Recently published Danish cartoon caricatures of the Prophet Mohammad were also deemed by many to be irresponsible.

The vilification and victimisation of Muslims in the UK for instance, has been possible because of the exploitation of a loophole in Race Relations legislation, exemplified by right wing groups like the British National Party (BNP) in their vitriolic campaign literature entitled “The Truth about I.S.L.A.M.”. The acronym is spelled out by the BNP as “Intolerance, Slaughter, Looting, Arson and Molestation of Women”. Modood notes, “the courts do not accept that Muslims are an ethnic group (even though, oddly, Jews and Sikhs are recognised as such) (Modood 2002, 114). Racial discrimination is outlawed, but religious discrimination in the UK is not (although blasphemy laws do protect Christianity from abuse). South Asians cannot be attacked overtly on account of their ethnicity, but Muslims are not protected against attacks on their “Muslimness”. There is simply a transfer of race to religion as a ‘marker’ for hatred and hostility. In short, “it is still lawful to discriminate against Muslims as Muslims” (Modood 2002, 114). It is understandable, then, that there have been periods of rising tension and there were serious disturbances, in particular, in clashes between Muslim and non-Muslim youth in towns such as Oldham and Bradford in 2001.

The Muslim minorities in the west are facing with great challenges, even though there are differences among the challenges which the Muslims are facing with them in the U.S.A and EU but within EU the problems of each country differ with the other ones.

In The U.S.A
In the United States of America the dominance of Zionism upon the mass media has played a crucial role upon restricting the mass media pressure on the Muslim minorities which its reason goes back to the dominance of the Jews upon the key economic stances of the United States of America.

In European Countries.
But as we already mentioned the situation in EU differs from one country to another one. In Italy the number of the Muslims is Less than one million which 80000 new Muslims of Italy have been added to them. They have established 450 mosques but the government has not yet accepted Islam as an official religion. In Germany the number of the Muslims is more than three million people that most of them are Turk. The German yet look at Muslims as the Foreigners who are dangerous to them.
In Britain the Muslims constitute more than five percent of the total population of the country and their number is more than two million people which one third of them have Indian race and the Muslims in Britain speak in almost one hundred accents (languages) which have root in 56 countries.
The English Muslims have 600 mosques that they have been registered as the institutes of charity. In 1963 there existed only 13 mosques in England. There exist also 1400 Islamic Associations in Britain.
Apparently the situation of the Muslims in Britain is better than the other countries because the legislation of Britain has a positive outlook upon the various ethnical groups and considers some what distinction to them. Under the aegis of the authorized freedoms with respect to the expression of the political identity the tribes of Muslims became able to express their opinions in this political system.
But, in France in which the greatest population of the Muslims has been allocated in its lands it has a considerable anxiety concerning the mixture of the Muslims and it doesn't have a clear policy with regard to the mixture of the migrants. In this country there live almost six million Muslims who have 1300 mosques and 600 associations as well as several Local Radio stations. In addition to them there live more than one hundred Muslims from French race.

Written by Dr. Moona Mokarram Obeid Professor of the American university of Cairo (a few excerpts has been made to this article)


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