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Contemporary clues: The modern clues have a strong connection with crime scenes, and have developed accordingly with the development of science in this contemporary world. It is based on the foundations of consulting technical experts, researches and experienced personnel in the field of evidence and criminal investigation. These include the following:

1-Making comparison of writings and inscriptions during plea of forgery.

2- Medical test in testification of the claim, which helps to identify the culprit and the cause of death. This is what is called the report of a legal doctor (Muslim Doctor's Report)

3- DNA:  a genetic fingerprint based on knowledge of the genetic traits of the human being.

4-laboratory experiments of the materials used for the crime whether they are apparent or hidden such that they become the proofs for verifying the crime and the perpetrator. They include hair traits, ballistics, footprints, fingerprints comparison, scents, checking the blood groups, semen’s, photography, date.

 

Judgment by using written document clues.

If a man makes a claim against another, and then testifies the right of his claim with an official or normal written document, does this document serve as a reliable evidence for ruling in his favor or against?

Its legal authenticity: the most preponderant view of the jurists is that a written document is regarded as one of the ways & means of affirming rights, due to the evidences in support of that, such as the verse of debts ( Baqara : verse no. 282), and the hadith (that shows the validity of ) a written will, and also due to the ardent need of people for that in ensuring the collection of their due rights. Also, the principles of Sharia and its aims & objectives dictate that, for the sake of protecting rights and eliminating difficulties.

Among these is inscribing on a wall that a particular house is for endowment ( Waqf). Imam Ahmad used to pass judgment in favor of that. Writing may be an official document such as cheques, birth certificate..etc., in such a case, it is a condition that the writer be a just person.

Authenticity of writing in the establishment of (familial) lineage.

If a man denies the son-ship claim of another person who is claiming that the former is his father, and there is nothing showing his lineage to him except a paper bearing his handwriting, does it establish his lineage based on this document?

If the paper is without any testimony, and the claimant is a woman whilst the writer of it is dead, then it is not regarded as a proof. This is in order not to pave the way for any woman who may commit immoral sex to claim such a thing in order to avert herself from humiliation. Hence, the plea of familial lineage is not heard if that is denied by the plaintiff except when such a claim is affirmed by the witness of two just people or when there is an official document in support of it such as a birth certificate.

In addition, , there are other clues which are used to affirmed a familial lineage during cases of lineage denial. They are laboratory blood test and fingerprint. There are also other ways as mentioned by the jurists which may not need to be explained here for the sake of time and space.

 

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