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Makkah Tower Prophet Alhamdulillaah Muharram Muharram 2 Muharram 3 Ashura 12 Months Good Advice Sincerity 5

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All praises and glorifications are due and belong to Allah, the Supreme Legislator and The Most Wise. May Allah’s special salutations and blessings be upon the Prophet Muhammad, his family and all his companions.

Islamic Political system is a branch of Islamic Fiqh( Jurisprudence) which defines the concept of leadership and its principles, aims and objectives. Briefly put, Islamic Political system is the administration of the affairs of the Muslim State aimed at achieving material and religious progress for the people in a way that does not militate against the teachings of the Glorious Qur’an and the Noble Sunnah. Thus, the system of Islamic politics does not necessarily need to be mentioned in the Qur’an and Sunnah but with the unwavering condition of the absence of any contradiction between it and the Quran and sunnah.

Principle of Islamic political system:

The political system of Islam is one of a divine origin. The ideology that man is a vicegerent of Allah on earth dictates that the earth be governed according to His law and legislation. Man, who is the core of this earthly existence, and also, Allah’s vicegerent, must organize his affairs according to Allah’s will and law. It is this objective that Islamic politics seeks to achieve, hence, the following fundamental principles is outlined , as mentioned in the books of Muslim Jurists, to serve this purpose.

1-Sovereignty of Allah

Sovereignty of Allah means the super power and authority of Allah over His creatures. Allah is the main source of all power and laws. The Qur’anic concept of sovereignty is simple; Allah is the Creator of the universe. He is its real Sustainer and Ruler. It is His Will that prevails in the cosmos all around. As all creation is His, His command should also be established and obeyed in man’s society. He is the real sovereign and His Will should reign supreme as the Law. An Islamic state must put those laws into practice for greater good of its citizens

Khilafa (vicegerency) of Mankind

Khilafah means succession or representation, and refers to the government in Islamic constitutional law. Thus, Khalifah means the person who would implement the will of Allah on earth as His deputy or representative. Allah says:

وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِى جَعَلَكُمْ خَلَٰٓئِفَ ٱلْأَرْضِ وَرَفَعَ بَعْضَكُمْ فَوْقَ بَعْضٍ دَرَجَٰتٍ لِّيَبْلُوَكُمْ فِى مَآ ءَاتَىٰكُمْ ۗ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ سَرِيعُ ٱلْعِقَابِ وَإِنَّهُۥ لَغَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌۢ

“ It is He who made you successors on the earth, and raised some of you in ranks over others, in order to test you through what He has given you. Your Lord is Quick in retribution, and He is Forgiving and Merciful.”(Al-An’aam :165)

So, man’s designations are Khilafah and his mission is to establish Khilafah. It is indeed a great honor and prestige to a man to be the representative or vicegerent of Allah among all of His creatures.

Legislation by Shoura (Consultation)

Shura is an Arabic word. It means consultation or to take advice from experts in a particular subject related with the administration of state. The term ‘Udwu al Shura’ means the Member of Parliament in modern political system. Shura means to take decision by consultation and participation. It is the lawmaking body of a state, and this is the important part of the Islamic Political System. Islam teaches us to run a government by the process of Shura. Legislation by Shura means democratic system of government that opposes autocratism. This is the dominant principle of Islamic system of government.

This principle is a very pivotal aspect of Islamic politics which was even upheld since the good days of the holy Prophet of Islam (may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and the golden days of his lofty companions, such that when the agony of death draw closer to the Ameerul- Mu’mineen (leader of the Believers) Umar Ibn Al-Khattaab (may Allah be please with him), he chose a shoura committee of six companions to select a next ruler after him and that they must choose a leader from among them.

Also even the Prophet (may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) who was backed with revelation from Allah Almighty was enjoined to adopt the concept of shoura in conducting affairs relating to the state. Allah says;

فَبِمَا رَحْمَةٍ مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ لِنتَ لَهُمْ ۖ وَلَوْ كُنتَ فَظًّا غَلِيظَ ٱلْقَلْبِ لَٱنفَضُّوا۟ مِنْ حَوْلِكَ ۖ فَٱعْفُ عَنْهُمْ وَٱسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ وَشَاوِرْهُمْ فِى ٱلْأَمْرِ ۖ فَإِذَا عَزَمْتَ فَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يُحِبُّ ٱلْمُتَوَكِّلِينَ

It is by of grace from God that you were gentle with them. Had you been harsh, hardhearted, they would have dispersed from around you. So pardon them, and ask forgiveness for them, and consult them in the conduct of affairs. And when you make a decision, put your trust in God; God loves the trusting.” ( Aali-Imraan : 159)

Accountability of Government

The Islamic political system makes the government responsible firstly to Allah and then to the people. The government is elected by the people to exercise powers on their behalf. Then government shall have to work for the welfare of the people according to the Qur’an and Sunnah. A government is a servant of the people in Islam. Both the government and the governed are the Khulafaa’ (vicegerents) of Allah and both will appear before Allah and account for their actions on the Day of Judgment. But the responsibility of the government or ruler is heavier than the governed or ruled. This accountability of government is not related only with the Day of Judgment but also in the present life.

Independent Judiciary

In the Islamic political system, the judiciary is independent of the Executive. The head of the state or any government minister can be called to the court if necessary. They would be treated no differently from any other citizen. The Qur’an has many injunctions about justice. One of the main functions of the Islamic state is to ensure justice to all of its citizens. The Qur’an states in this regard:

يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ كُونُوا۟ قَوَّٰمِينَ بِٱلْقِسْطِ شُهَدَآءَ لِلَّهِ وَلَوْ عَلَىٰٓ أَنفُسِكُمْ أَوِ ٱلْوَٰلِدَيْنِ وَٱلْأَقْرَبِينَ ۚ إِن يَكُنْ غَنِيًّا أَوْ فَقِيرًا فَٱللَّهُ أَوْلَىٰ بِهِمَا ۖ فَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا۟ ٱلْهَوَىٰٓ أَن تَعْدِلُوا۟ ۚ وَإِن تَلْوُۥٓا۟ أَوْ تُعْرِضُوا۟ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرًا

O you who believe! Stand firmly for justice, as witnesses to God, even if against yourselves, or your parents, or your relatives. Whether one is rich or poor, God takes care of both. So do not follow your desires, lest you swerve. If you deviate, or turn away-then God is Aware of what you do.” (An-Nisaa’ 135)

So, the judiciary will be totally separate and independent from executive. The ruler and the government have no right to interfere in the system of justice.

Equality Before The Law

The Islamic political system ensures equality of all citizens before the law. It does not recognize any discrimination on the basis of language, color, territory, sex or descent (birth/origin). Islam recognizes no preference of one over the other except only on the basis of Taqwa (Allah fearing in every steps of life). The Holy Qur’an declares:

يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلنَّاسُ إِنَّا خَلَقْنَٰكُم مِّن ذَكَرٍ وَأُنثَىٰ وَجَعَلْنَٰكُمْ شُعُوبًا وَقَبَآئِلَ لِتَعَارَفُوٓا۟ ۚ إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عِندَ ٱللَّهِ أَتْقَىٰكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ خَبِيرٌ

 “O people! We created you from a male and a female, and made you races and tribes, that you may know one another. The best among you in the sight of God is the most righteous. God is All-Knowing, Well-Experienced.(Al-Hujuraat : 13)

An in-depth study of the above principles and others that are not mentioned here reveals a comprehensive and a multi-facet picture of the Islamic Political system. If well implemented will unearth all forms of corruption and injustice against all citizens be they Muslims or non-Muslims leading to an angelic State with human habitants with the in-sense of Godliness running through all its systems.

 

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