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Before we come to sharia perspective of Administrative competence, there will be the need to provide some definitions of administration, cited by the early administrative pioneers, some specialists in administration in the West.

  Frederick Taylor defined Administration as" a correct knowledge of what you want men to do, then making sure they are doing their jobs the best and cheapest way . " [Fredrick Taylor, shop management.]

 According to Henry Fayol administration is to:” forecasts and plan, organize, issue commands, coordinates, and monitor." [Industrial management.by Henry fayol] .

 Dr. kaamil Moroccan says that "Administration is the process of coordination among all human production and non - human factors, using the functions of planning, organization, leadership, supervision, and control; even possible to reach the desired goal, to the maximum possible efficiency . " [the basics of management," p . 19.by Dr. Kaamil ]

 Also Dr.Mahmoud Assaf defined administration by looking at its nature, and citing a Qur’anic verse from the chapter of Az-Zukhruf: 32:

 

نَحْنُ قَسَمْنَا بَيْنَهُم مَّعِيشَتَهُمْ فِى ٱلْحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنْيَا ۚ وَرَفَعْنَا بَعْضَهُمْ فَوْقَ بَعْضٍ دَرَجَٰتٍ لِّيَتَّخِذَ بَعْضُهُم بَعْضًا سُخْرِيًّا ۗ

 "It is We who have allocated their livelihood in this life, and We elevated some of them in rank above others, that some of them would take others in service..”  (Az-Zukhruf: 32:) , and on this basis, people in the social make - up are divided into two categories: Administrators (managers) and implementers; such that Administrators carry out leadership and planning, directing, organizing and monitoring, in order to reach the targeted goals, hence, Administration can be defined as "dominating others; to make them work efficiently to achieved prescribed goals within a stipulated period of time.”["asset management by Dr. Mahmoud Assaf ", pp . 11-13] .

 The codification of Administration in sharia perspective does not differ much with the above-mentioned conception of administration. Addition to that were only the concept of Godliness and the implementation of Islamic injunctions in the work of administration. Thus Dr. Adnan Ali An-Nahwi defined Islamic administration as : “taking advantage of all rules of eeman (faith); to provide the greatest amount of production at the highest level of proficiency and competency in the shortest possible time; making the whole work an act of worship to Allah.” (the jurisprudence of faith in the administration of Islamic Call , " p . 36.by Dr. Adnan Ali An-Nahwi)

The holy Qur’an and the Noble Sunna made some references to administration and its importance, thus urging Muslims to imbibe it in the organization of their worldly affairs. In the Holy Qur’an, whilst talking about the need for the documentation of transactions, Almighty Allah says:

 

إِلَّآ أَن تَكُونَ تِجَٰرَةً حَاضِرَةً تُدِيرُونَهَا بَيْنَكُمْ فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَلَّا تَكْتُبُوهَا ۗ

 

“….except in the case of a spot transaction (that you are administering) between you-then there is no blame on you if you do not write it down…” (Al-Baqara:282)

 His holiness (may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him ) whiles giving account of the events depicting the occurrence of the last hour, said: .. Women will increase in number and men will decrease in number so much so that fifty women will be administered (looked after) by one man.” (al-Bukhari)

Islam also urges its adherents towards proficiency and competency in all endeavors both religious and worldly, and this is the concept of ihsan about which Allah says:

 

وَٱللَّهُ يُحِبُّ ٱلْمُحْسِنِينَ

 

“…God loves the doers of good…” (Aali-Imraan:148).  A muhsin is one who performs good deeds and ihsan is goodness itself. Ihsan also means to perfect, to excel or to show proficiency and excellence. Therefore, it could be considered that the Arabic word ihsan has a dual meaning, goodness and excellence. Muslims need to strive to achieve excellence, proficiency, and perfection in all good actions.

 A civilization cannot rise if its people do not try their best to achieve the best results in all that they do. The Messenger of Allah, salla Allahu `alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “Verily, Allah loves that when anyone of you does a job he should perfect it” (Al-Bayhaqi).

 Administration is a very vital sphere of life that needs a high level of competency, proficiency and excellency. The seerah (biography) of our beloved and noble messenger reveals, he always assigns duties to his companions based on their capabilities and potentials. The same methodology was applied by the righteous caliphs after him; Abubakar, Umar, Uthman and Ali (may Allah be please with them)

 Abu Dharr reports that he asked the Prophet (may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) whether he would not make him a governor somewhere. Hearing this the Prophet (may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) tapped his shoulder and said: “O Abu Zar ! you are weak, and this responsibility is a trust. On the Day of Judgment it will be a cause of loss of honour and ignominy. However, those people will be spared who will have accepted it with all its responsibilities and would have fulfilled whatever responsibilities they had in this connection.”

 Governorship is a form of administrative work and the topmost of it. When he (peace be upon him) realized Abu Dhār (May Allah be please with him) was not suitable of it, he excused him of that appointment. This clearly shows that administrative appointments should be based on competency. It must also be noted that religious and spiritual excellence may not necessarily depicts administrative competency, for many are those who have excel in the religious arena but are not fit for administrative affairs and the vice versa is true. The combination of both traits in an individual is not also an impossible scenario. Personalities such as the rightly guided caliphs mentioned above are clear examples of people who have both excelled in administrative and religious roles especially that of Umar Ibn Al-Khattaab (May Allah be pleased with him).

 

In sharia perspective, a competent administrator needs to be characterized with certain qualities. These qualities serve as the preambles of success in the work of  administration of any kind, whether public or business. The following are some of them as spelt out in the glorious Qur’an and the noble sunnah( the main sources of sharia):

 

1-Faith and belief: a competent administrator must be an embodiment of faith and strong belief. He/she must be the fountain head of piety, from whom subordinates may derive inspiration . This quality aids in the shunning of evils such as bribery and the practice of such corrupted practices that are likely to diminish the reputation and goodwill of the organization. One of the greatest qualities commonly shared by all great leaders who ever lived was their strong faith and belief in higher entity, themselves or their ideas. Faith and belief are thus the key qualities which determine the quality of one’s leadership. No other religion has placed so much emphasis on faith than Islam.

2- Mutual consultation and Unity. (Fraternity and brotherhood.)

The holy Qur’an declared:

وَٱلَّذِينَ ٱسْتَجَابُوا۟ لِرَبِّهِمْ وَأَقَامُوا۟ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَأَمْرُهُمْ شُورَىٰ بَيْنَهُمْ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَٰهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ

And those who respond to their Lord, and pray regularly, and conduct their affairs by mutual consultation, and give of what We have provided them. (Shura:38)

There is wisdom in mutual consultation as decisions taken with mutual consultation are supported by everyone and all concerns of the parties involved are addressed.  There is an important lesson here: the followers' trust and confidence is gained if their opinion is respected, thus, administrators with this quality are able to succeed in reaching out to their goals.

3-Superior communication:

An administrator must be extremely good in communication and must be eloquent and articulate. This is required to communicate the purpose, mission, vision, and goals of an organization. Communication is an extremely important quality which must be learned, practiced and mastered by every leader or administrator of both public or private entities. The holy Prophet Muhammad was the fountainhead in this regard. His instruction and directions were all of such height of eloquence, clarity, and ambiguous that it could be understood by all his followers. This facilitates implementation of orders and achievement of set goals.

4-Justice and Compassion.

Justice and Compassion are yet other qualities, which form the core of administration in the sharia perspective. Justice without compassion leads to tyranny, while compassion without justice creates anarchy. An administrator needs to maintain a careful balance keeping the overall good of the organization in mind.

Other traits that lead to competency in leadership in sharia perspective are Patience and endurance, Commitment and Sacrifice, Lifelong Endeavour, showing appreciation for good work done with its accompany emoluments, and encouraging subordinates with shortcomings to live up to expectation whilst concealing their weaknesses.

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