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 Muslim war on the Persian Empire or what is known as the Islamic conquest of Persia is a series of military campaigns launched by Muslims on the Sassanian Persian Empire adjacent to the borders of the Islamic state during the Caliphate of Abu Bakr al-Siddiq, which led to the collapse of the Persian empire and decline of Magianism religion in Persia, in addition to the conversion of many Persians to Islam.

Here are the most famous battles fought by Muslims against the Persians in the era of Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him.

 

The Battle of Chains 11 AH (633 AD)
The first invasion began in 11 AH (633 AD) under the leader of Khalid ibn Walid when he sent, on his way to Iraq, a message to Hormuz, the Persian ruler of Iraq, asking him to choose between Islam, jizyah (a tax taken from non-Muslims living in a Muslim state to protect them) or fighting, but Hormuz chose fighting, and asked King Kisra support, then he moved to Kazma where the army of Muslims was camped. The battle ended with killing of Hormuz by Khalid bin al-Walid along with defeating Persians, but Qabad and Anoushgan, commanders of the Persian army, managed to escape. The share of each Muslim knight of that battle was 1,000 dirhams. The battle was called the Battle of  Chains because Hormuz chained a number of his soldiers for fear of their escape.

 

The Battle of Mazar 12 AH (633 AD)

 

When news of the defeat of Hormuz reached to Madaen, the capital of the Persians, their king Ardashir sent another army under the command Qarn bin Qirians. When the army reached Marr, he joined the defeated army, headed by Qabad and Anoushgan. Then the Muslims arrived at the same place and the battle between the two parties ended with flee of Persians and kill of about 30000 of them, in addition to killing Qarn bin Qirians, Qabad and Anoushgan.

The Battle of Walaja 12 AH (633 AD)

This battle took place after Ardashir could not accept his previous defeat, so he sent a great army of Bakr tribe and other tribes loyal to him led by two commanders: Anderzghar and Behman to defeat the Muslim forces. However, the fate of the battle was the Persians defeat by Muslims thanks to Allah first then the intelligence of Khalid bin al-Walid when he hid the army, so the Persians were ambushed from three sides and unexpectedly attacked by them. The Persian army had no choice but to flee while the commander Anderzghar fled then died because of thirst.

 

The Battle of Ulais 12 AH (633 AD)

 

After the defeat of Christian Arabs of Bakr tribe in the previous battle, they were divided into two parts: one with Muslims led by Khalid bin al-Walid, and the other with the Persians led by Japan. When the Persian army arrived to Ulais (an area in the first of Iraq) the Muslim army went to them. The fighting between the two sides was very hard, but eventually, the Persians were unable to resist the Muslims, so they were defeated, captured and about 70,000 of them were killed, according to al-Tabari.


The Fall of Heerah

After the Governor of Heerah ordered his son to cut off Euphrates’ flow of water, Muslims’ boats stopped on the land. Khalid went to his son and killed him, then he besieged the city of Heerah but its people shut themselves in fortresses. Soon after, the Frontier Chiefs submitted to Khalid bin Waleed and requested reconciliation, then he agreed to pay 1,90,000 Dirhams yearly. As for the Governor, he fled after hearing the news of Ardashir's death of prolonged illness and his son's murder.



The Conquest of Al-Anbar and the Battle of Daumat-ul-Jandal

 

After the Battle of Heera, Khalid bin Waleed Khalid marched towards Anbar. He besieged the Sassanian Persians in the city fortress, which had strong walls. Scores of Muslim archers were used in the siege. The Battle of Al-Anbar is often known as the "Battle of Eyes" because Muslim archers were told to aim at the "eyes" of the Persians, until they heard their scream "The Anbars' eyes have gone".

 

After that, its ruler was expelled, while its people made peace with Khalid bin Waleed on condition Of (their) evacuating, but then they gave him something he was content with, so that he confirmed them (in their possessions) ... Then he went to (Ayn al-Tamr) and took it by force, killing and taking captives. He sent the captives to Abu Bakr. They were the first Persian captives to come

to Medina. He then went to Dumat al-Jandal, where he killed Ukay- dir and took captive the daughter of al-Judi. After this, he returned and stayed at al-Heerah. All this was in the year 12. (1)

 


The Battle of Firaz  12 AH (634 AD)

 

After the victory at Daumat-ul-Jandal, Khalid advanced to Firaz.– Where the borders of Heerah, Syria and Iraq meet. Both armies crossed the Euphrates which was between the Muslims and the Enemy force (Persians, Romans, and Christian Arabs). The battle ended with a victory for the Muslims and a murder of approximately 100000 of the Enemy force.

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