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Scholars defined Islamic politics in many ways but with all revolving around one theme: administering the affairs of the Muslim community in ways that brings them benefit and ward off harm from them. Imam Ibn Nujaim defined Islamic politics as: “an act that stems from a ruler due to a benefit he thinks it brings even if such act has no any legal support in the religion” (Al-bahru Raa’iq: 11/5)

An excerpt from Ibn Khaldoun conception of Islamic politics explains it as “administering the society according to the Islamic law in their worldly and spiritual benefits taking into consideration their interest in the hereafter. in short, Islamic politics is the vicegerency of Allah in preserving the religion and ruling the world with it” (Muqadimatu Ibn Khaldoun :97-Introduction of Ibn Khaldoun)

The science of Jurisprudential theories explains the jurisprudential application of legal maxims known as “Qawaa’id al-fiqhiyya” on the political administration of the affairs of the Muslim nation.. These legal maxims serve as theories that facilitate the understanding of the nature of Islamic politics, areas of its application and what does not fall within the sphere of Islamic politics. Some of these theories are as follows:

1-Not causing harm and not allowing harm (on one). This is one of the greatest jurisprudential theory on Islamic politics, which is taken directly from the noble words of the Messenger of Allah-peace be upon him. Among the political application of this theory is to eradicate harm by all means, either before it occurred, in the process of its occurrence or after its occurrence by way of legislating reasonable sanctions and punishment on people who invent such harms to serve as detriment to others in the society. Islamic politics is based on working towards to unearthing harm before its occurrence by making all provisions for that even if it entails military preparation. The holy Qur’an declared:

وَأَعِدُّوا۟ لَهُم مَّا ٱسْتَطَعْتُم مِّن قُوَّةٍ وَمِن رِّبَاطِ ٱلْخَيْلِ تُرْهِبُونَ بِهِۦ عَدُوَّ ٱللَّهِ وَعَدُوَّكُمْ وَءَاخَرِينَ مِن دُونِهِمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَهُمُ ٱللَّهُ يَعْلَمُهُمْ ۚ

“And prepare against them all the power you can muster, and all the cavalry you can mobilize, to terrify thereby God's enemies and your enemies, and others besides them whom you do not know, but God knows them…” (Al-Anfal: 60)

 

2-considering of results and recognizing it:

Consideration of the outcome of decisions and actions is one of the theories of Islamic politics. Actions or decisions should not only be executed due to their immediate apparent benefits, rather, a deep consideration of their long term effects and ultimate outcome on the society and the state must be taking into consideration. A proof of this is when the holy Prophet Muhamad-peace be upon abandoned his wish of reconstructing the holy Mosque of Ka’aba and creating two doors to it. He-peace be upon him while addressing his wife; Aesha the mother of the believers (May Allah be pleased with her) said: “ Oh Aesha!, had it not been that your people (meaning the Quraish) are close to the era of disbelieve (as they just embrace Islam) I would have destroy the Ka’aba and reconstruct it with two doors, through one of it the people will enter and come out from the other “ (Bukhari) . Apparently rebuilding the Ka’aba was a good decision particularly as that was its original architecture constructed by Prophet Ibrahim and Ismaeel ( peace be upon them), but his holiness peace be upon took into consideration the outcome negative effect on the newly converted tribe of Quraish and subsequently abandoned his wish. Another scenario illustrating this theory from the biography of the holy Prophet-peace be upon him- is his refusal of killing the hypocrites of his time even when their hypocrisy and harm on Islam and Muslim were very apparent, he said clarifying the reason for his refusal to kill them: “ I fear that people would say : “ Muhammad is killing his companions”. (Bukhari).  Scenarios on this theory are many and cannot be enumerated here.

3 starting with the most important in chronological order.  In Islamic politics, people’s affairs are handled starting with the most important. It ensures that the most basic and important needs comes first before others. This theory is inferred from the hadith of Mu’adh (may Allah be pleased with him) prior to his departure to Yemen to teach them Islam, the Prophet (may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said to him: “Verily, you are coming to a people among the people of the Book, so call them to testify there is no God but Allah and I am the Messenger of Allah. If they accept that, then teach them that Allah has obligated five prayers in each day and night. If they accept that, then teach them that Allah as obligated charity to be taken from the rich and given to the poor. If they accept that, beware not to take from the best of their wealth. Be on guard from the supplication of the oppressed, for there is no barrier between it and Allah. (Muslim)

Many other Jurisprudential theories are discussed in the books of fiqh and Islamic politics, but in essence, they all represent the beauty, the divine essence and the lofty aim of this truthful and just religion. It came to liberate mankind in all spheres on the basis of establishing: the oneness and dominion of the Creator Tawheed),  bondship to Him and just leadership.

 

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