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 When Abu Bakr became caliph in 11 AH after the death of the Prophet peace be upon him, rebellion and apostasy rose across some Arab tribes - outside Mecca.

Reasons for the wars against apostates

 

·         The death of the Prophet peace be upon him; some tribes such as Ghatfan gave up their Islam because the weakness of their faith; they believed that the Prophet must not die, and that prophecy is gone by his death.

 

·         Some tribes refrained from paying Zakah, which is one of Islam's pillars, such as the tribe of Hawazin. They believed that it was a tax paid to the Prophet peace be upon him, and they should not continue to pay it anymore after his death. This is considered an act of apostasy in Islam, which is unacceptable and whoever commits it must repent or killed. There was also Malik ibn Nuwera, a chief of the Bani Yarbu', a large section of the powerful tribe of Bani Tamim. He refrained from paying Zakah, then his tribe followed him.

 

·         Rejection of the succession of Abu Bakar.

·         The emergence of false prophecy. Some tribes' leaders claimed prophecy such as Musaylimah, the leader of the Banu Hanifa, Tulaiha from Bani Asad, and Al-Aswad ibn Ka'b al-Ansi in Yemen.  Those three claimed to be prophets since Muhammad, peace be upon him, was alive. Tulaiha led the rebellion against Medina aided by the allied tribes of Banu Ghatfan, Hawazin, and Tayy.

 

Abu Bakr's reaction

Abu Bakr sent envoys to all the enemy tribes, warning them and calling upon them to remain loyal to Islam and continue to pay their Zakat. He wanted to give them a chance to repent before the war take place, but they refused. Moreover, they attacked outskirts of Madina at dawn, knowing that there were few fighting forces in the city. However, they suffered a terrible defeat because Abu Bakr expected their plan and equipped some Muslim defenders to guard borders of Madinah.

After the apostates' attack, Abu Bakr decided to attack them, so he began to prepare 11 brigades to eliminate rebilling tribes as follows:

-          The first brigade led by Khalid ibn al-Walid to fight Tulayha Al-Asadi and his tribe Banu Asad, as well as Malik ibn Nuwera at Butah.

-          The second brigade led by Akrama ibn Abi Jahl, to fight Musaylima at Yamamah

-          The third brigade led by Shuraihabil bin Hassanah and was a support for Akrama in the battle of Musaylimah.

-          The fourth brigade, led by Al-Muhajir ibn Abi Umayya al-Makhzoumi to fight Al-Aswad in Yemen.

-          The fifth brigade led by Suwayd ibn Muqrin al-Ousi to fight Tihama of Yemen.

-          The sixth brigade led by Alaa bin Hadrami to fight Bani Qais and apostates of Bahrain.

-          The seventh brigade led by Hudhayfah bin Mahn to fight apostates in Oman.

-          The eighth brigade led by Arfaja bin Harthamah and directed to Mahra.

-          The ninth brigade led by Amr ibn al-Aas to fight Quza'a in northern.

-          The Tenth brigade led by Maan al-Sulam to fight Bani Salim and Hawazin.

-          The last brigade led by Khalid bin al-Aas, was directed to the outskirts of the Levant.

 

Results:

 

-          The victory of Muslims against apostates.

-          Musaylima and Malik were killed, while Tulaiha returned to Islam and later participated in conquests of Muslims.

-          Khaled Bin Al Waleed became famous as a great commander among Muslims because of his great efforts in wars along with his military ability to eliminate the apostates and return them to Islam.

-          The martyrdom of many of the best memorizers of the Holy Quran and great Companions in the battle against Musaylima at Yamamah.

-          The spread of Islamic religion, as it extended to all the regions, and this led to the conversion of many people to Islam.

-          Eliminating apostasy movements and false prophecy completely, so no one was able to rebel, claim prophecy or refrain from paying Zakah again.

-          Unification of the Arabian Peninsula under the banner of Islam again.

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