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 Before Islam, the Levant was ruled by the Byzantines. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) sent a campaign under the leadership of Usama bin Zaid to Levant, but it stopped because of the Prophet's illness and later his death. When Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, became Chaliphat, he was interested in invasion of Damascus more than Iraq. Therefore, his first order was completing the mission of Usama, but later he was busy with wars of apostasy. However, when Abu Bakr ended these wars, he prepared four armies to liberate the Levant from Byzantian rule as follow:


The first army led by Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah towards Homs.

The second army led by Yazid bin Abi Sufyan and his goal was Damascus.

The third army led by Shurahbil bin hassana towards east of Jordan River.

The fourth army led by Amr ibn al-A'as towards Palestine.


Abu Ubaida's mission also appeared to be the commander of all armies.


In 13 AH / 634 AD, The Arab forces fought the Byzantines and defeated them. When news about the Arab advance reached the Emperor Hercules in Homs, he equipped huge forces under the leadership of his brother Theodore, therefore, the Caliph Abu Bakr send a letter to Khalid bin al-Walid, the commander of the Iraqi front, ordering him to move to to help the armies in Leavant.


On April 8, 634 AD,  Khalid bin al-Walid left Iraq with an army of nine thousand fighters. On his way to the leavant, he opened the small cities that were under the Byzantine rule: Quraqer- Arc- Tadmur - Al-Qaryatain - Ghouta - Busra. When Khalid arrived at Yarmouk, where the Muslim armies were waiting for him, the command of the Muslim army was transferred to Khalid by Abu Ubaidah, Commander in Chief of the Muslim army. At that time, Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, passed away and Omar bin Khattab became the Chaliphate of Muslims.

In the summer of 15 AH / 636 AD, the decisive meeting was held on the land of Horan, while the Roman forces were confined between the valley of Rqad and the Yarmouk River. There is no doubt that the battle of Yarmouk was one of the great battles of the Islamic history, which resulted in great results:

- the Byzantine forces were completely defeated.

- the Arabs then recovered all the areas that have already liberated before, and continued their march north to the mountains of Taurus.

- Hercules ran away from Syria saying: "Goodbye Syria, forever"


Omar bin al-Khattab divided the Levant into two states, one under the governorship of Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan and its headquarter was Damascus, and the other under the governorship of Abu Ubaida bin Jarrah and its center in Homs. In military terms, the Levant was divided into four military zones, known as:  the army of Damascus, the army of Jordan, the army of Palestine, and the army of Homs, which was the largest army, and was divided into two sections later: army of Homs and army of Qansirin.


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