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After the conquering of Damascus and the victory of the Islamic armies on the Romanian armies in the Levant, Caliph Omar ibn al-Khattab wanted to send an army to Iraq to eliminate the Persian rule there which was beginning to weaken and collapse. Omar - may Allah be pleased with him-  wanted to lead the army himself, but after consulting his companions, they advised him to stay in Madinah, and ordered another man to lead the army, so he chose "Saad bin Abi Waqas" to carry out this serious mission.


Saad went to Iraq with more than thirty thousand knights. They achieved the greatest glories and the most impressive victories in the battle of Qadisiyah on the month of Shaaban 15 AH, which lasted several days, and ended with Muslims' victory and Rustam's death (the commander of the Persian army).  The battle of Qadisiyah was a decisive victory for Muslims in their struggle against the Persians, and a deadly blow to the Persian rule in Iraq, through which Muslims destroyed the field force of the Persian Army permanently. About 50,000, of the Persians were killed, while the few others fled to Mada'en (the headquarter of the Persian Empire which was known to Persians as Ctesiphon).

Two years after Qadisiyah, Saad moved towards Mada'en. He collected his soldiers and told them of his intention to cross the river towards Al-Mada'en, and they were very enthusiastic. Saad divided the army into three sections, the first led by Assem bin Amr, and the second led by Al-Qaqaa bin Amr, while he led the rest of the army.


Armies have advanced with faith and courage; they did not fear death, the river, nor the Persians who were waiting for them on the other shore. When they saw Muslim crossing the river towards them, they rushed to gather their knights to confront them, and prevent them from getting out of the water. A large number of Persian knights gathered on the beach, heavily armed, waiting for the arrival of Muslims to throw them with arrows and spears, and eliminate them before they reached the shore.


However, the commander of the first army, Amr ibn Asim quickly realized their plan, and ordered his men to throw their spears direct to the eyes of Persians' horses. The spears were thrown like lightning. Turmoil began among the Persians, their ranks were disrupted, then they fled back to Al-Mada'en.

The Muslims entered Al-Mada'en while Kisra and his soldiers fled carrying what they could carry of money, valuables and luggage.

Then Saad and Muslims prayed the prayer of the conquest thanking Allah for that great victory. Muslims offered the people of Mada'en the convertion into Islam or paying the tribute ( jizah) but they chose the tribute. After that, Saad opened the rest of Iraq's cities, such as: Tikrit, Mosul, Maspdan, Qarqisia, Hit, Dist-Missan, Ahwaz, Ramhurmus, and Tustar.


Among the Muslim Army at that time, there was Suraqa bin Malik who was promised by the Prophet (peace be upon him) on the day of emigration that he will wear the bangles of Kisra. Having entered Mada'en, Omar gave Suraqa the bangles of Kisra; in implementation of the the Messenger's promise, peace be upon him.


Thus, the ancient Persian Empire fell into the hands of Muslims. Its fall was a new chapter in the history of Persia, after many of their people began to convert into Islam because they found freedom, justice and good treatment under Islamic ruling, which helped to further Islamic conquests later.



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