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Combining the Intention of Making up of the Missed days of Ramadan and Fasting the Six Days of Shawwal.

Question:

Is it possible to combine two intentions in case a woman wants to do fasting in Shawwal, that is to combine the intention of fasting the six days of Shawwal and the intention of making up for Ramadan? Thank you.

Answer:

Praise be to Allah and may peace and blessings of Allah be upon the Messenger of Allah and his family and companions, to proceed:

This issue is known to the scholars as the issue of "Tashreek" (the combination of two worships with one intention). And its ruling is that if it is on means or the case where one of the worships can fit into the other properly, one intention will be sufficient for both of them and the need of the two worships is attained. For example; If a person with Janabah washed on Friday for Friday and to raise the Janabah, he will be purified from his Janabah and get the reward of washing for Friday. Also if one of the two worships is not aimed at, and the other is intended purposely for it, it is also sufficient to combine them in one intention, and that does not have any negative impact on the worship. For example; combining between Tahiyyatul masjid (the two units prayers offered as a greeting to the Mosque) and the obligatory prayers or another voluntary prayer, the Tahiyyatul Masjid is not aimed at specifically, rather, the aim is performing  prayer at the place and it has been done.

As for the combination of two acts of worship each of which is aimed at specifically, such as the Zuhr prayer and its Sunnahs, or such as a compulsory fasting, weather doing it at it stipulated time or making up for a broken fast, an expiation or a vow, combining that with a desirable fasting  such as the six days of Shawwal, this combination is invalid, because each worship is independent from the other and is aimed at specifically and cannot fit into the other.

Fasting the month of Ramadan, and the like of it which is making up for it is aimed at specifically, and fasting the six days of Shawwal is also aimed at specifically, because fulfilling both of them together is like fasting the whole year, as it is confirmed in the hadith, so it is not correct to overlap and combine them with one intention.

If he fasts with the intention of making up for the month of Ramadan and the six days of Shawwal, will it be considered a make-up or a nafle(voluntary worship)? Or will it not be considered for any one of them?

Some of the scholars said; it will be considered a make up for Ramadan, the others said; it will be considered as nafle, some others said; it will not be considered for any one of them.

But if he fasts in Shawwal with the intention of making up for Ramadan only and it coincides with the six days of Shawwal and more, will he be rewarded for fasting the six days of Shawwal or not?

The most correct view is that there is hope for him  to receive a reward lesser than the reward of the one who fasted the six days specifically and voluntarily, due to the possibility that the nafle may fall under the compulsory. It is mentioned in al-Sharqawi on at-Tahrir of Sheikh Zakaria al-Ansari that: "If he fasts in it - ie, Shawwal - making up for Ramadan or other fast be it a vow or other voluntary fast, he will have the reward of the voluntary fast of Shawwal, because the target is the occurrence of the fast in six days of Shawwal ... But he will not get full reward which is due only to the intention of fasting the six days of Shawwal, especially the one who missed some days of Ramadan, because it is not considered that he fasted Ramadan and followed it with six days of Shawwal".

And Allah Knows best.

Source of the Fatwa:

Fatwa issued by: Fatwa center at Islam web.

Fatwa no.: (6579).

Original text of the Fatwa in Arabic:

السؤال:

هل يمكن الجمع بين نيتين في حال رغبة المرأة الصيام في شوال وذلك بين نية صيام الأيام الستة وصيام القضاء؟ وشكرا.

الإجابة:

الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله وعلى آله وصحبه أما بعد:

فهذه المسألة تعرف عند أهل العلم بمسألة التشريك (الجمع بين عبادتين بنية واحدة). وحكمه أنه إذا كان في الوسائل أو مما يتداخل صح، وحصل المطلوب من العبادتين، كما لو اغتسل الجنب يوم الجمعة للجمعة ولرفع الجنابة، فإن جنابتة ترتفع ويحصل له ثواب غسل الجمعة. وإن كانت إحدى العبادتين غير مقصودة، والأخرى مقصودة بذاتها صح الجمع ولا يقدح ذلك في العبادة كتحية المسجد مع فرض أو سنة أخرى، فتحية المسجد غير مقصودة بذاتها، وإنما المقصود هو شغل المكان بالصلاة، وقد حصل. وأما الجمع بين عبادتين مقصودتين بذاتهما كالظهر وراتبته، أو كصيام فرض أداءً أو قضاء كفارة كان أو نذراً، مع صيام مستحب كست من شوال فلا يصح التشريك، لأن كل عبادة مستقلة عن الأخرى مقصودة بذاتها لا تندرج تحت العبادة الأخرى... الخ.

والله أعلم. 

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